Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.[301]. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. [323] Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. [262] The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) and has a population of 6.945 million persons. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns. Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river. The driest month (with the lowest rainfall) is August (43mm). [199] Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Fortification of the Île de la Cité failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86), for which the then Count of Paris (comte de Paris), Odo of France, was elected king of West Francia. [269] It is home to some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, as well as many other well-known and more contemporary fashion designers, such as Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Yves Saint Laurent, Givenchy, and Christian Lacroix. The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2018 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt.

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