Uhari et al. J. 2, F.I. J. Lichton, I.J., J.B. Miyamura, and S.W. (1963) who found that, under normal conditions, sweat loss accounted for over 12 percent of the total daily excretion of magnesium in men working in temperatures of 49° to 50°C. Fed. Moser, R.A. Vigersky, A. Singh, and E.B. J. Clin. Gardner, and R.J. Barnard 1981 Elevation of hemoglobin and work tolerance in iron-deficient subjects. Nickerson, H.J., M. Holubets, A.D. Tripp, and W.E. Sci. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Specific heats of silica minerals, halite, and cordierite, per unit weight 72 31. Scaff 1982 Plasma mineral levels in marathon runners during a 20-day road race. 6:327–336. 45:954–962. Salt balance and rennet clotting properties of cow's, ewe's, and goat's milks preserved with carbon dioxide. Oh 1978 Nutritional and environmental factors affecting metallothionein levels. Consolazio, C.F., L.O. Recent research has indicated that chromium requirements may be influenced by strenuous exercise. Sports Exerc. Redistribution of serum magnesium into red blood cells (Abbasciano et al., 1988; Deuster et al., 1987; Lukaski et al., 1983) and into adipocytes (Franz et al., 1985) with exercise has also been reported. However, it is important to note that the occurrence of low tissue iron stores in these individuals could present a problem with regard to recovery from injuries that result in extensive tissue damage or blood loss. A scavenger of superoxide anion radicals. Zinc absorption from typical foods ranges from 10 to 40 percent (King and Turnlund, 1989); thus the type of meal fed will have a significant effect on the zinc balance of individuals exposed to the above conditions. 63:2532–2535. Lang, J.K., K. Gohil, L. Packer, and R.F. Med. Dvorak, and J.B. Roepke 1989 Influence of dietary iron source on measures of iron status among female runners. Clin. Although there is a common perception that athletes as a group tend to have a high incidence of anemia compared to sedentary populations, hematological surveys of elite athletes have typically not supported this idea (Brotherhood et al., 1975; de Wijn et al., 1971; Stewart et al., 1972). Goldstein, I.M., H.B. × 39:402–409. Med. 12:332–336. However, as discussed below, strenuous exercise does influence the metabolism of several minerals, and the amount of minerals lost via sweat (due to either intense heat or exercise) can be significant. Although not clearly defined in humans, signs associated with marginal chromium status in experimental animals include impaired glucose tolerance, elevated circulating insulin, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, and increased incidence of aortic plaques (Campbell and Anderson, 1987). With regard to zinc, one component of the acute-phase response is an increase in liver metallothionein concentration, which can result in a sequestering of zinc in the liver (Cousins, 1985; Whanger and Oh, 1978). Phys. Int. Anderson, R.A., M.M. Physiol. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk. Biol. Jooste, P.L., J.M. Although the metabolic functions of chromium have not been clearly defined, chromium is known to be involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, presumably via a role in insulin action. Sports Med. Wenkam 1987 Altered zinc status of soldiers under field conditions. (1985) have reported that providing highly bioavailable iron (heme iron in meat) or iron supplements (105 mg per day) can retard the development of low serum ferritin concentrations. Biophys. Sci. Aviat. Am. This reduction in plasma zinc occurred despite an increase in dietary zinc intake during the training period. The magnitude of the increase in plasma zinc concentration with exercise is such that it cannot be due to hemoconcentration (Hetland et al., 1975; Lukaski et al., 1984); rather it is thought to reflect the result of muscle leakage of zinc into the extracellular fluid following muscle breakdown (Karlson et al., 1968). Carroll, S.L. Similarly, Liu et al. 2005 Jul-Aug;45(4):473-83. doi: 10.1051/rnd:2005030. Cooper 1970 Serum electrolyte changes after marathon running. 10:113–118. Anderson, R.A., and A.S. Kozlovsky 1985 Chromium intake, absorption, and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets . Patterson, L.G. Heeley 1985 Copper and iron complexes catalytic for oxygen radical reaction in sweat from human athletes. This observation was extended by Hetland et al. (1990) reported that plasma copper concentrations were lower in long-distance runners than in sedentary controls, and Dowdy and Burt (1980) reported that plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activity decreased in competitive swimmers over a 6-month period. Hickson and I. Wolinsky, eds. Ceruloplasmin copper has also been demonstrated to be transferred to apo-copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Percival and Harris, 1991). 65:238–309. Heat And Its Effect on Mineral Content. Responses of Soldiers to 4-gram and 8-gram NaCl Diets During 10 Days of Heat Acclimation, 13. Given these concentrations, sweat can be an appreciable route of iron loss particularly when sweat rates exceed 5 liters per day. Med. Assoc. 1998 Jan;61(1):66-72. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-61.1.66. Following the cessation of exercise, there is normally a rapid drop in plasma zinc levels back to preexercise concentrations within a short period. Nutr. This suggestion was based on the observation that a significant number of endurance runners were characterized by low serum zinc concentrations even when tested prior to an exercise bout. Sci. 2009 Mar;60(2):153-64. doi: 10.1080/09637480701625580. 1981 Serum zinc in athletes in training. In addition, typical urinary zinc losses under conditions of stress will average 0.5 to 0.8 mg per day. Am. 1989 The endogenous pyrogens in host-defense interactions. (1970) first demonstrated that strenuous exercise can result in marked changes in zinc metabolism. Ohno, H., T. Yahata, F. Hirata, K. Yamamura, R. Doi, M. Harada, and N. Taniguchi 1984 Changes in dopamine-b-hydroxylase, and copper, and catecholamine concentrations in human plasma with physical exercise. However, given the observation that typical selenium intakes are only on the order of 100 µg per day (Pennington et al., 1984), the loss reported by Consolazio seems excessive, and may reflect the technical difficulties involved in measuring this element. The Effect of Excercise and Heat on Mineral Metabolism and Requirements." NIH (1976) reported an increased magnesium content in exercising muscle during prolonged work that paralleled the decline in plasma magnesium. Prasad, A.S., G.J. Eur. Shoomaker, and P. Rabbani 1978 Hypocupremia induced by zinc therapy in adults. Sports Exerc. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. J. Holloszy 1973 Effect of exercise on the turnover of cytochrome C in skeletal muscle. Timmis 1991 Development of runners' anemia during a 20-day road race: Effect of iron supplements. 1985 Physiologic changes during a marathon with special references to magnesium. 0 This value should be contrasted to typical dietary copper intakes, which are on the order of 1 to 2 mg (Pennington et al., 1989). Changes in the distribution of minerals in skim goats' milk by high pressure (400 MPa) and/or heat (85 degrees C for 30 min) treatment have been studied. Although the average zinc intake during the field exercise was lower than zinc intakes in a sedentary control group of soldiers who were fed the same food, intakes by both groups were considered adequate. A parallel concern is ensuring that performance does not decline as a result of inadequate nutrition. Although loss of basal copper via sweat is typically considered negligible (Gutteridge et al., 1985; Jacob et al., 1981), Consolazio et al.
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